# Computer Graphics: Cheatsheet

Because I'm always forgetting this stuff

## Homogeneous coordinates

Adding a fourth term: $$w$$ makes it easier to work in 3D euclidian space. $$({x \over w},{y \over w},{z \over w}) \Rightarrow (x,y,z,w)$$

Why? Here's a long list of reasons, but a couple key points:

• 3D scaling, rotation, and translation operations can be represented as a single linear transform (4x4 matrix)
• A direction (Infinity) can be represented in 3D space: (x,y,z,0)

## Transformations

### Translation

for a point $$p$$: $$T(t)p = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & t_x\\ 0 & 1 & 0 & t_y\\ 0 & 0 & 1 & t_z\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1\\ \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} p_x\\ p_y\\ p_z\\ 1\\ \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} p_x + t_x\\ p_y + t_y\\ p_z + t_z\\ 1\\ \end{bmatrix}$$ for a vector $$v$$: $$T(t)v = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & t_x\\ 0 & 1 & 0 & t_y\\ 0 & 0 & 1 & t_z\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1\\ \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} v_x\\ v_y\\ v_z\\ 0\\ \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} v_x\\ v_y\\ v_z\\ 0\\ \end{bmatrix}$$ inverse transform: $$T^{-1}(t) = T(-t)$$

### Scaling

$$S(t)p = \begin{bmatrix} s_x & 0 & 0 & 0\\ 0 & s_y & 0 & 0\\ 0 & 0 & s_z & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1\\ \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} p_x\\ p_y\\ p_z\\ 1\\ \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} s_xp_x\\ s_yp_y\\ s_zp_z\\ 1\\ \end{bmatrix}$$

### Rotation

When applying individual rotations (yaw, pitch, roll), the order of rotation operations is important. To get around this problem use axis-angle representation.

If you only need to rotate around a single axis, then applying the rotation transform can be straightforward. $$R_z(\alpha) = \overset{\text{yaw}}{ \begin{bmatrix} \cos\alpha & -\sin\alpha & 0 & 0\\ \sin\alpha & \cos\alpha & 0 & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}} R_y(\beta) = \overset{\text{pitch}}{ \begin{bmatrix} \cos\beta & 0 & \sin\beta & 0\\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0\\ -\sin\beta & 0 & \cos\beta & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}}$$ $$R_x(\gamma) = \overset{\text{roll}}{ \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0\\ 0 & \cos\gamma & -\sin\gamma & 0\\ 0 & \sin\gamma & \cos\gamma & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}}$$ The inverse of a rotation matrix corresponds to its transpose $$R_x^{-1} = R_x^T \qquad R_y^{-1} = R_y^T \qquad R_z^{-1} = R_z^T$$

### Shear

add math & graphics

## Coordinate Systems

Local space, World space, View space, Clip space, Screen space (todo: figs & transforms)

### Model Coordinates

The space where the model resides.

Using the Model Matrix, you can get to world coordinates

### World Space

We use the Model Matrix to get from Local Space to World Space

Using the View Matrix you can get to Camera coordinates

### View Space

using the Projection Matrix, you can get to Clip Space (or Homogeneous Coordinates)

### Clip Space

#### Perspective vs Orthographic Projection

perspective / orthographic projection. near plane / far plane. clipping.

### Screen Space

You can use the Viewport Tranform to get to Screen Space (actual pixels)

### Combining Transformations

To transform a vertex coordinate to clip coordinates: $$V_\text{clip} = M_\text{projection}\cdot{M_\text{view}}\cdot{M_\text{model}}\cdot{V_\text{local}}$$

## Other Useful References

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